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electrical:12v:alternator [2018/12/28 07:35]
frater_secessus [isolators]
electrical:12v:alternator [2019/06/23 17:43] (current)
frater_secessus [alternator hacks]
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 ====== Alternator charging ====== ====== Alternator charging ======
  
-In a dual-battery system((starter battery and house battery)) some of the alternator output is used to charge the house batteries. ​ Since the house battery is electrically isolated from the starter battery when the ignition is off, these are sometimes called //battery isolators//​.+In a dual-battery system((starter battery and house battery)) some of the alternator output is used to charge the house batteries. ​ Since the house battery is electrically isolated from the starter battery when the ignition is off((or house battery voltage is below a given setpoint)), these are sometimes called //battery isolators//​.
  
  
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   * when batteries are deeply discharged   * when batteries are deeply discharged
-  * when [[electrical:​12v:​alt and solar|combined with solar]]+  * when [[electrical:​12v:​alt and solar|combined with solar]] ​or some other higher-voltage charging source
   * when used with battery chemistries like [[electrical:​12v:​lifepo4_batteries_thread|lithium]] that do not need [[electrical:​12v:​charging|staged charging]].   * when used with battery chemistries like [[electrical:​12v:​lifepo4_batteries_thread|lithium]] that do not need [[electrical:​12v:​charging|staged charging]].
   * when used with a [[electrical:​12v:​b2b|battery-to-battery boosting charger]] that can produce correct charging voltage   * when used with a [[electrical:​12v:​b2b|battery-to-battery boosting charger]] that can produce correct charging voltage
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   - [[http://​amzn.to/​2gVwmKw|solid state isolator]] -  an electronic device which uses diodes to prevent depletion of the starter battery. ​ **Isolators are generally brick-shaped**. ​ Diode-based isolators have a **0.5v - 1v drop** between the alternator and house battery. This may be desirable if the house battery is a lower-voltage chemistry like [[electrical:​12v:​lifepo4_batteries_thread|LiFePO4]]. ​ Some solid state isolaters use FETs and diodes in tandem to reduce voltage drop. \\ Note:  solid state relays can't combine batteries for self-jumpstarting.   - [[http://​amzn.to/​2gVwmKw|solid state isolator]] -  an electronic device which uses diodes to prevent depletion of the starter battery. ​ **Isolators are generally brick-shaped**. ​ Diode-based isolators have a **0.5v - 1v drop** between the alternator and house battery. This may be desirable if the house battery is a lower-voltage chemistry like [[electrical:​12v:​lifepo4_batteries_thread|LiFePO4]]. ​ Some solid state isolaters use FETs and diodes in tandem to reduce voltage drop. \\ Note:  solid state relays can't combine batteries for self-jumpstarting.
   - manual switch - A [[http://​amzn.to/​2gsDtNc|manual battery switch]] normally has 4 positions: A, B, A+B, and Off. A would be for the starter battery and used during starting. B would be used for house use when one is not driving. A+B could be used to combine both sets for starting or for charging while driving. This kind of setup is prone to user error. A manual switch has no current or voltage losses.   - manual switch - A [[http://​amzn.to/​2gsDtNc|manual battery switch]] normally has 4 positions: A, B, A+B, and Off. A would be for the starter battery and used during starting. B would be used for house use when one is not driving. A+B could be used to combine both sets for starting or for charging while driving. This kind of setup is prone to user error. A manual switch has no current or voltage losses.
 +
 +===== sizing an isolator =====
 +
 +If an isolator is **oversized** it will cost more for no benefit and will self-consume somewhat more energy to hold the combining circuit closed.((an electromagnet holds the parts of the active circuit together. ​ When power to the inolator input is cut the electromagnet can no longer hold the circuit closed. ​ The circuit is open and the batteries are isolated from each other.)) \\
 +If an isolator is **undersized** (less common) it will not be able to carry enough current, resulting in overheating and/or [[electrical:​12v:​alternator#​sudden_disconnection|sudden shutdown]].
 +
 +==== flooded lead-acid ====
 +
 +FLA batteries can accept up to [[electrical:​12v:​battery_capacity|C]]/​5 in [[electrical:​12v:​charging|Bulk stage]].  ​
 +
 +Example: ​ a 200Ah FLA battery bank will pull up to 40A((200Ah/​5)) in Bulk charging. ​ An isolator rated for constant duty at 40A((likely with peak tolerance of 60A or so)) would be sufficient.((assuming you aren't applying heavy loads like a microwave while driving)) ​
 +
 +
 +
 +==== AGM lead-acid ====
 +
 +Consumer-grade AGM batteries typically will accept C/5 - C/3.
 +
 +Example: ​ a 200Ah AGM bank will pull up to 67A in Bulk.  A 75A isolator((100A peak)) would be sufficient.
 +
 +Note:  high-end AGM like Lifeline, Odyssey, Rolls, etc, can pull massive current when charging. 200A+ would be possible for the example bank and could shorten the life of a stock alternator.
 +
 +
 +
 +==== lithium ====
 +
 +Lithium also has the ability to accept massive amounts of charging. It will do so across the entire charging range, as lithium does not have an Absorption phase the way lead-acid does. 
 +
 +Example: ​ 200Ah of lithium could easily accept 200Ah+. ​ There are mitigating factors, however.  ​
 +  * Because lithium can use about 80% of it's capacity instead of 50% for lead-acid, 120Ah of lithium is a common replacement for 200Ah lead-acid banks. ​ So the lithium bank would "​only"​ draw 120A instead of 200A.
 +  * drop-in lithium banks like [[https://​amzn.to/​2J10vpZ|Battleborn]] have a battery monitoring system (bms) to shut down charging if current exceeds specs.
 +
 +
 +==== sudden disconnection ====
 +
 +**Sudden disconnection of a large load((including a charging battery)) when the alternator is running** can damage the alternator and any operating chassis electronics. ​ Sudden disconnection can occur when:
 +  * an isolator shuts off due to current beyond it's rating
 +  * a BMS shuts off lithium charging. ​ This can include overvoltage,​ overcurrent,​ temperature extremes, etc.
 +
 +
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 ===== gotchas ===== ===== gotchas =====
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   * a higher-output alternator will put out more power   * a higher-output alternator will put out more power
   * a different **voltage regulator** for older vehicles, [[http://​www.cheaprvliving.com/​forums/​Thread-Your-Vehicles-voltage-regulator|as demonstrated by SternWake]],​ increases the voltage available for charging but also increases the coach voltage.   * a different **voltage regulator** for older vehicles, [[http://​www.cheaprvliving.com/​forums/​Thread-Your-Vehicles-voltage-regulator|as demonstrated by SternWake]],​ increases the voltage available for charging but also increases the coach voltage.
-  * a  [[http://​www.sterling-power-usa.com|Sterling]] "fake load" regulator will cause the alternator to put out more amps and then will DC-DC convert the voltage up to correct charging range.((http://​www.sterling-power-usa.com/​library/​What%20is%20an%20alternator%20to%20battery%20charger.pdf)). ​ This is the opposite direction of how [[electrical:​solar:​charge_controller|MPPT charging]] works.+  * a  [[http://​www.sterling-power-usa.com|Sterling]] "fake load" regulator will cause the alternator to put out more amps and then will DC-DC convert the voltage up to correct charging range.((http://​www.sterling-power-usa.com/​library/​What%20is%20an%20alternator%20to%20battery%20charger.pdf)). ​ This is the opposite direction of how [[electrical:​solar:​charge_controller|MPPT charging]] works.  Also see [[electrical:​12v:​b2b|b2b chargers]].
  
 ===== using the coach battery only ===== ===== using the coach battery only =====
-A simple possible approach would be to replace the starter battery with a marine or AGM battery.((http://​www.cheaprvliving.com/​forums/​Thread-Easiest-simplest-cheapest-power-set-up))+A simple possible approach would be to [[electrical:​solar:​shallow_cycling|replace the starter battery with a marine or AGM battery]].((http://​www.cheaprvliving.com/​forums/​Thread-Easiest-simplest-cheapest-power-set-up))
  
 ===== further reading ===== ===== further reading =====
electrical/12v/alternator.1546011307.txt.gz ยท Last modified: 2018/12/28 07:35 by frater_secessus