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electrical:12v:deep_cycle_battery

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electrical:12v:deep_cycle_battery [2020/05/13 10:05]
frater_secessus [manufacturers]
electrical:12v:deep_cycle_battery [2020/07/18 15:52] (current)
frater_secessus [Gel cell]
Line 85: Line 85:
 ==== carbon FLA ==== ==== carbon FLA ====
  
-Some manufacturers attempt to get around the [[electrical:​12v:​psoc|Partial State of Charge]] limitations of lead chemistries by using carbon in some form.  The idea is that the addition of carbon ​limits ​hard sulfation that can form in PSOC scenarios.+Some manufacturers attempt to get around the [[electrical:​12v:​psoc|Partial State of Charge]] limitations of lead chemistries by using carbon in some form.  The idea is that the addition of carbon ​increases the internal conductivity of the negative plate under challenging conditions, minimizing ​hard sulfation that can form in PSOC scenarios.
  
-In the milder form, carbon is added to the negative plates. ​ Trojan claims up to 15% more cycles from the RE(("​Renewable Energy"​)) line than non-carbon FLA in PSOC use.((http://​www.trojanbattery.com/​new-products/​smart-carbon/​)) ​ At this writing the cost premium for this <=15% increase in cycles is 21%.(($175 for T-105RE vs $145 for T-105))+In the milder form, carbon is added to the negative plates
 + 
 +> Battery manufacturers have begun including high purity conductive graphite in the negative active material of their batteriesThey have found that this type of carbon helps to maintain the essential active material conductivity that helps to control sulfation.((https://​batteryvitamin.net/​sulfation_remedies_demystified)) 
 + 
 + 
 +  * Rolls calls this "​[[http://​support.rollsbattery.com/​support/​solutions/​articles/​245858-advanced-nam|Advanced NAM]]"​((negative [something] material?)) and claims 15% faster charging, increased capacity, and increased cycle life.  They state that this type of battery may have higher [[electrical:​solar:​charge_controller_setpoints|endAmps]] due to less internal resistance.((http://​support.rollsbattery.com/​support/​solutions/​articles/​246380-end-amps-or-return-amps)) 
 +  Trojan claims up to 15% more cycles from the RE(("​Renewable Energy"​)) line with "smart carbon"​((https://​www.trojanbattery.com/​new-products/​smart-carbon/​)) ​than non-carbon FLA in solar-charging ​use.((http://​www.trojanbattery.com/​new-products/​smart-carbon/​)) ​ At this writing the cost premium for this <=15% increase in cycles is 21%.(($175 for T-105RE vs $145 for T-105)) ​ This would be an extra 9 months of life assuming a 5yr lifespan.
    
 +
 ===== manufacturers ===== ===== manufacturers =====
  
Line 95: Line 102:
  
 Interstate batteries made by US Battery have "​U"​ prefixes.((https://​www.solarpaneltalk.com/​forum/​off-grid-solar/​batteries-energy-storage/​14996-trojan-t-105-vs-crown-235-and-what-s-wrong-with-parallel?​p=195949#​post195949)) Interstate batteries made by US Battery have "​U"​ prefixes.((https://​www.solarpaneltalk.com/​forum/​off-grid-solar/​batteries-energy-storage/​14996-trojan-t-105-vs-crown-235-and-what-s-wrong-with-parallel?​p=195949#​post195949))
 +
 +===== construction =====
 +
 +Generally speaking, lead batteries fall into three broad groups
 +
 +  - **starter** - relatively little lead, but thin and spongey, calcium-doped((https://​www.engineersedge.com/​battery/​antimony_calcium_selenium_tin_alloying.htm)) plates make a huge surface area for massive currents involved with starting the engine and immediately recharging from alternator. ​ The addition of Calcium decreases internal resistance, increases the outgassing voltage((thereby reducing water loss)) point((http://​necon.co.za/​batttech.php?​w=1366&​h=768#​openModal)),​ decreases self-discharge,​ but makes the plates more likely to be damaged by overcharging. ((https://​www.engineersedge.com/​battery/​antimony_calcium_selenium_tin_alloying.htm))  ​
 +  - **deep cycle** - lots of lead formed into thick, smooth antimony-doped plates. ​ Can move less current but can do so for a longer time and can tolerate deeper discharge. ​ This comes at the cost of increased water loss and self-discharge rates. ​ Deep cycle batteries prefer to be floated constantly after charging.
 +  - **hybrid/​marine** - plates tend to have middling thickness. ​ They may have calcium-doped negative plates and antimony-doped negative plates.((http://​necon.co.za/​batttech.php?​w=1366&​h=768#​openModal))
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
  
 ===== VRLA ===== ===== VRLA =====
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 ==== Gel cell ==== ==== Gel cell ====
  
-This type of VRLA battery gelatinizes the electrolyte to stabilize it.  While renowned for their duty cycles, they are rarely used in campers. ​+This type of VRLA battery gelatinizes the electrolyte ​with SiO2 (silicon dioxide) ​to stabilize it.  While renowned for their duty cycles, they are rarely used in campers ​due to cost, limited charging max similar to flooded((C/​5,​ https://www.trojanbattery.com/​pdf/​datasheets/​Motive_T1275-AGM_DS.pdf and https://​www.qsl.net/​wb3gck/​gel-cell.htm)),​ and sensitivity to overvoltage. 
 + 
 +"Lead crystal"​ batteries may actually be gel, since they claim the electrolyte is made of SiO2.((http://​azimuthsolar.ca/​getting-silicon-dioxide-sio2-batteries-charging-instructions/​)),​((https://​www.solarpaneltalk.com/​forum/​solar/​the-pros-and-cons-of-solar-energy/​22713-why-are-there-no-lead-crystal-battery-distributors-in-the-usa-or-canada?​p=272482#​post272482)) 
 + 
  
 ==== Carbon foam AGM ===  ==== Carbon foam AGM === 
electrical/12v/deep_cycle_battery.1589389500.txt.gz · Last modified: 2020/05/13 10:05 by frater_secessus