A Eurovan is a van that was designed for a European or world market rather than for the U.S. market.
Eurovans can often be ordered with an OEM high roof for standing room. Small turbodiesel engines are sometimes available for a premium.
The Eurovans' appearance can be polarizing, some in the U.S. market regarding them as weird or ugly looking. High roof models can appear top-heavy.
The Sprinter, Transit, and Promaster have the starter battery under the seat or floorboard rather than under the hood. This can make dual-battery (alternator charging) wiring short and simple.
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These are not lists of pros/cons. They are stated reasons (correct or otherwise) people gave for purchasing one platform over the others.
Bring a ladder or use a vantage point to inspect the top of any high roof vehicle before purchase. It may help you find undisclosed damage.
We're the Russos has an excellent article on eurovan pro/con.